Corks and screw caps.
The former can be of three different types: single-piece corks, two-disc corks and moulded corks.
Single-piece corks are obtained from a single die cutting of the cork sheet and are used for “medium-high level” lines.
Two-disc corks are made up of a body of cork grit and two natural cork discs on top, they are used for “core range” products.
Agglomerate corks, also called technical corks, are made of granulated corks, glued and pressed with approved food glues. These corks are used for “core range” product lines too.
Screw caps are latest generation caps, also called STELVIN, and are made of a metal cap that screws onto threads on the neck of a bottle and a quite long skirt that aesthetically resembles the traditional wine capsule. These are commonly used for product lines to be traded abroad.
Calories for dry white wine with 12% alcohol content:
TOTAL = 67,3 Kcal/100 g of wine
Calories for dry red wine with 13% alcohol content:
TOTAL = 72,9 Kcal/100 g of wine
They come from all the vineyards within the province of Chieti in the Abruzzo region, belonging to the 9 cooperatives which make up the Consortium on an area of 90 km long from north to south and 40 km wide from east to west, surrounding both the sea and mountains of our region.
By following these 4 simple rules:
Storage temperature: 15-17° C (cellar temperature), a fundamental temperature to avoid chemical reactions related to the degeneration of polyphenols.
Humidity: min 60 max 70% to keep the right hydratation average of the cork.
Absence of light: photosensitization of wine increases the chance of degeneration of polyphenols, as light acts as a chemical catalyst.
Bottles should be laid: so that caps are moistened all the time and won’t dry with the consequent penetration of air inside the bottle and the transfer of oxygen to wine. By laying down a bottle, the mixture of anhydride (carbonic, nitrogen, and so on) in the top part of the bottle’s neck (between cap and wine) moves to the bottle’s shoulder, where, if you watch closely, you can spot a bubble.
These rules allow preserving the organoleptic characteristics of wine.
Yes, they are. As a matter of fact beyond a certain concentration rate (10 mg/l) it is mandatory to state on the label “it contains sulphites”. However, we should point out that according to the in-force regulation the limit for sulphurous anhydride (sulphites) in wine is 200 mg/l for dry white wine, and 150 mg/l for dry red wine.
Although, in compliance with its production ethics, the average of sulphurous anhydride in Citra’s wine aims at drastically cut down sulphites. The percentage of sulphurous anhydride amounts almost to the half of the legal limit.
The World Health Organization determined that the acceptable daily intake, or ADI, of sulphites should be of 0.7 mg of SO2 per kg of body weight, therefore an adult man, 70 kg of weight, should not exceed the daily intake amount of 49 gr.
Recently a “counterculture” for the use of sulphurous anhydride as antiseptic and/or antioxidant has spread; CITRA joined it by producing wines without added sulphites, in which only the sulphites produced naturally by yeast during fermentation are present. For these wines, it is not mandatory to state on the labels the presence of sulphites, as their amount is very low (lower than 10 mg/l). These have been conceived as “handcrafted” products and the result of the care for details and oenological knowledge, with several features, even unpleasant ones.
It depends on the wine variety: new wines are usually bottled right after vinification; as far as other wine varieties are concerned, the DOP and IGP regulations give directives on bottling and/or launching and state the “standards of identity”. Although the most important date that should be taken into account is when tasting occurs: wine should rest for a while in the bottle before being put on the market. Therefore some periodic tastings after bottling will determine the date of launching and consumption.
It is one of the key phases of the production of wine. Refinement allows a series of chemical reactions, it is carried out respectively in steel, wood, and bottle or even with a combination of those different kinds of refinement processes. Reactions depend on several factors such as oxygen, temperature, humidity, tannins, both for white and red wines.
The importance of this phase becomes evident already by looking at its name: “refining” means “making something finer, more gentle, refining it or improving its style, talent or sensitivity; “And then he stepped back into the fire which refines” (Dante).
No, it does not.
It depends on the barrique type, the variety of wine it previously contained and for how long this variety has been contained.
Barriques, whose staves and heads are not toasted (toasting: a thermal processing carried out with living flame applied to wood, so that it would then give the wine some peculiar organoleptic characteristics), can be used for a longer period of time. Usually, two or maximum three barriques are used. If barriques are used for both fermentation and refinement, these are usually employed only once.
The market of vintage wines is regulated by the norms of supply and demand, as for all other markets too. The network that regulates this market is the network of big wine shops, on-line shops and collectors.
Its production is regulated by some peculiar norms called “standards of identity”, that suppliers must follow strictly if they want to assure the quality of their products with the designation of origin and the indication of origin. Among these norms: vineyards must be admitted to the reference register; some peculiar production parameters must be strictly followed; wines must be produced in compliance with some defined chemical parameters and their organoleptic characteristics must be “certified” by appropriate tasting commissions that are registered to the local Chamber of Commerce.